The jacquard machine, also called the jacquard mechanism, is an attachment device that enables the loom to weave fabrics that have complex patterns such as tapestry, brocade, and damask. The word” jacquard” is named after Joseph Marie Jacquard, in honor of his contribution to the jacquard loom improvement. However, Jacquard was not the inventor of the jacquard loom, instead, a master craftsman who parented jacquard loom based on earlier inventions by the Frenchmen Basile Bouchon, Jean Baptiste Falcon, and Jacques Vaucanson.
Significance of the Jacquard Machine
1. Increase Weaving Efficiency
Before the appearance of the jacquard machine, if the fabric requires a complex pattern, it needs to use hand-stitching work, which is a kind of Chinese folk handcraft, was listed as the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage by the Ministry of Culture of China in 2006. There were 2 methods of hand-stitching: stitching and weaving the weft one by one, or picking and weaving loop by loop. No matter which method, the stitching information can not be stored for a long time and is repeatedly used, even needing to stitch by hand when weaving a repeated pattern, which results in a significant labor and time cost.
While the jacquard machine simplified this textile manufacturing process with a punch cards chain and warp shedding setting. Set of punched cards laced together into a continuous sequence for remembering the weaving sequences of a certain pattern during the weaving process so which frees the repeat work of hand stitching and saves production time. It is like a computer program today, which enables all operations to be handled after this program is programmed.
2. Promote Computer Programming Development
The replaceable punched cards function of the jacquard machine is also considered as an influential step of computing hardware development history. It only needs to modify the punched cards of the jacquard loom if you want to weave different patterns on the fabrics, which gave a meaningful significance to the development of computer programming and data entry.
1. On the jacquard machine, the cards are fastened into a continuous chain on a barrel. Every time a weft is woven, a punched card is turned over, and the barrel is pressed against the horizontal needle once. When there is a hole in the card, the head end of the horizontal needle will stretch into the hole of the card so that the hook end of the straight needle is still hanging on the select bar.
2. When the lifting knife rises, the straight needle rises with it, driving the heald through the first thread hook and harness, at which time the warp thread penetrating the hole of the heald also rises with it, forming the upper layer of the shuttle. Heald hammers are suspended from the lower heald loops of the harness, which helps the heald return by its weight when the shuttle is closed.
3. When there is no hole on the punched card, the horizontal needle will recede through the projecting head and will push the corresponding straight needle, making the hook end of the straight needle shedding from the lifting knife, so that neither the warp nor the weft connected to the straight needle will not rise, which forms the lower layer of the shuttle.
4. Therefore the movement of each warp is determined by the holes on the punched card, while the holes on the card are arranged according to a certain pattern design, which is why the movement of the warp meets the pattern and organization requirements.
Today, the jacquard loom is still used to create high-quality fabrics and textiles. Many designers believe that the jacquard loom has the potential to revolutionize the clothing industry. With its ability to create complex patterns and designs, the jacquard loom could be used to create unique and stylish clothing that is unlike anything else on the market.