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Warp Beam and Warping

In a weaving process, warp and weft are the 2 basic movements for making thread or yarns turn into fabrics, which are the origins of the names of warp beam and weaving beam. A Warp beam also called warp roller in American English, is located at the back of a weaving loom, on which the warp ends are wound in preparation for weaving. And weaving beam is commonly called weaver’s beam. It is a strong and long rounded wooden pole that is located at the top of a weaving loom for holding a warp or vertical thread.

Macrostructure of Warp Beam

The macrostructure of the warp beam is made up of two parts: the body and the head. The body of the warp beam is cylindrical in shape and contains the warps. The head of the warp beam is spherical in shape and contains the weft. The weft is inserted into the warp through a hole in the head of the warp beam.

A warp beam is a support structure used in weaving. It holds the longitudinal threads, or warp, in place while the weft is woven through them. The warp beam is mounted on the loom and can be wound with multiple threads.

warp beam


Warping is especially important for terry fabric production lines because it utilizes fewer add-on percentages in terms of the size of the material on the yarns. Preserving the threads or yarn elongation and maintaining it at an even state is the essential purpose of a warping process, that is, to make a combination of yarns from different cones and to form a yarn sheet.

Process of Warping

When preparing a warp beam for weaving, the weaver first determines the desired width of the fabric and the number of ends per inch that will be required. The weaver then calculates the amount of thread needed for each end, allowing for take-up and shrinkage. The weaver ties the threads onto the beam, dividing them into sections called "sheds." The weaver passes the heddles through the sheds, attaching them to treadles that will raise and lower the warp threads during weaving. The weaver adjusts the tension on the warp threads and secures them to the back of the loom before beginning to weave.

The process of warping is vital to creating any woven fabric. In order to make a strong and serviceable cloth, careful planning must go into creating an evenly balanced beam of thread that can be used on a loom to create consistent fabric widths. Without this preliminary step, it would be impossible to produce anything but a tattered mess of string.

2 Main Factors Affect the Fabric Quality

1. Slub Catcher & Tensioner Setting

A slub catcher is a mechanical or electronic device designed for detecting and removing the slubs or neps in yarns, generally electric designed at the current market. While the tensioner setting is designed to achieve ideal control of yarn's tension if combined with a proper warping speed.

2. Even Warping Speed

A uniform warping speed is also extremely valuable. The tensioner should impart smaller at elevated warping speed and more at low warping speed. The air drag provides a balance tension of yarns, which makes the yarns in a strong tension at elevated speed and in a low tension at low speed.

Types of Warping Methods in Fabric Weaving

There are many different types of warp beams and warping methods used in fabric weaving. The most common type is the cross warp, where the threads are crossed over one another in a criss-cross pattern. This method is often used for heavier fabrics such as denim or wool.

The lengthwise warp is another popular method, where the threads are aligned parallel to each other. This type of warp is often used for lighter fabrics such as cotton or linen.

The balanced warp is a third option, which involves using two different sets of threads that are interlaced with each other. This creates a more sturdy and durable fabric, making it ideal for use in rugs or upholstery.